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Research & Litigation

Children's Rights: Canada

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Fri, 10/10/2014 - 10:00am
Canada has ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and one of the two optional protocol to it while signing the other. Responsibility for implementation is split between the federal government and the provinces. Canada's ten provinces have nearly universal health insurance plans that cover virtually all children and maintain most social welfare agencies. Another provincial responsibility is education. Children receive tax-supported elementary and secondary education. Universities charge subsidized tuition. Minimum ages for employment are yet another provincial responsibility. On the federal level, there are many criminal laws designed to prevent child abuse. The number of related offenses and the maximum punishments for them have been greatly increased in recent years. In its national defense laws, the federal government now prohibits Canadian soldiers under the age of eighteen from being deployed in armed conflict. The federal government also created a new juvenile justice system in 2002 that gives the police and judges more options in handling cases of juveniles charged with criminal offenses than the previous law.

The Children's Rights: Canada report contains information on: the implementation of International Rights of the Child, child health and social welfare, education, child labor and exploitation, sex and trafficking of children, juvenile justice, and concluding remarks.
Categories: Research & Litigation

Guide to Law Online

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Fri, 10/10/2014 - 10:00am
The Guide to Law Online by the Law Library of Congress is a vast network of links to content-based Web sites of primary and secondary legal and legislative information services from 143 nationals and all U.S. federal, state and territorial government entities.
Categories: Research & Litigation

Children’s Rights: Brazil

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Fri, 10/10/2014 - 10:00am
The Constitution provides the principles to be followed for the protection of children and adolescents in Brazil. These principles, coupled with the numerous international treaties signed and several pieces of legislation enacted, offer a wide range of protection to children’s and adolescents’ rights.

The Children's Rights: Brazil report contains information on: the implementation of International Rights of the Child, child health, child social welfare, education, child labor and exploitation, sale and trafficking of children, juvenile justice, and concluding remarks.
Categories: Research & Litigation

Children’s Rights: Australia

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Fri, 10/10/2014 - 10:00am
Australia is a signatory to all significant treaties that impact on children’s rights. The rights and protection of children are governed by both Federal and state and territory law. Persons below the age of eighteen are generally considered children.

Children may be able to give consent to medical procedures where they are either over a statutory age (fourteen to sixteen depending on the jurisdiction), or, of sufficient maturity that they are able to comprehend the procedure and give informed consent.

Children below the age of ten are unable to be charged with a criminal offense and children between the ages of ten to fourteen have a refutable presumption that they are incapable of forming the necessary criminal intent for an offense.

Children below the age of seventeen may not volunteer to join the armed services.

Education of children is compulsory. The age between which children must be educated varies across jurisdictions but is generally between the ages of five to sixteen.

Australian children have a right to access health care via Australia’s universal health insurance program and all jurisdictions have additional programs to encourage children and young persons to seek medical care.

The Children's Rights: Australia report contains information on: the implementation of International Rights of the Child, child health and social welfare, education, child labor and exploitation, sale and trafficking of children, and juvenile justice.
Categories: Research & Litigation

Children’s Rights: Argentina

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Fri, 10/10/2014 - 10:00am
The long awaited national Law for the Integral Protection of Children and Adolescents was enacted in 2005 to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified by Argentina in 1990. In addition to adopting comprehensive protective measures for children, it lays the groundwork for a juvenile justice system, calls for institutionalized children to be integrated back into society, and establishes mechanisms to protect children from abuse and exploitation.

The Children's Rights: Argentina report contains information on: the implementation of International Rights of the Child, child health and social welfare, education, child labor and exploitation, sale and trafficking of children, juvenile justice, and concluding remarks.
Categories: Research & Litigation

Children’s Rights: International Laws

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Fri, 10/10/2014 - 10:00am
The growth of children’s rights as reflected in international and transnational law has transformed the post-war legal landscape. This overview describes some of the major global and regional legal instruments that have contributed to this transformation, as well as specific relevant provisions in broader human-rights related instruments and in international agreements on child protection and placement.
Categories: Research & Litigation

Children’s Rights: International and National Laws and Practices

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Fri, 10/10/2014 - 10:00am
The Law Library of Congress is publishing a series of reports on Children's Rights: International and National Laws and Practices. There is a preface to the report by the Honorable Ted Poe, an introduction by Dr. Rubens Medina, a section on international laws and practices, and an area for country reports which will continue to be updated to add new countries.
Categories: Research & Litigation

New Massachusetts Comprehensive Fire Safety Code

Massachsuetts Trial Court Law Library - Fri, 10/10/2014 - 8:30am
The Board of Fire Prevention Regulations has posted the future Massachusetts Comprehensive Fire Safety Code, which will go into effect January 1, 2015.  They are not "official" yet, but they are posted for training purposes.
The new code adopts, in large part, the National Fire Prevention Association’s (NFPA) Model Fire Code (NFPA-1- 2012 Edition), with Massachusetts amendments.  The new code replaces 527 CMR almost  in its entirety, but will retain chapter 12, which is the Electrical Code amendments.
The Board has also published a cross reference document, which is a table referencing the old code numbers to the new code numbers.  The cross reference is call the Cross Walk.
Categories: Research & Litigation

A Magna Carta MOOC

In Custodia Legis - Thu, 10/09/2014 - 12:51pm

The following is a guest post by Emm Barnes Johnstone, historian of medicine with the Centre for Public History, Heritage and Engagement with the Past at Royal Holloway, University of London.

Royal Holloway, a college of the University of London, sits just two miles from Runnymede. We are home to some of the world’s experts on Magna Carta in its thirteenth century context and on its reinterpretation and reinvigoration in the seventeenth century, so we’re invested in making the commemorations of the 800th anniversary of the sealing of Magna Carta as successful as possible. This means ensuring the commemorations do not only celebrate past achievements, but show how the legacy of Magna Carta continues today.

Royal Holloway’s Founders Building offers views over Runnymede. Photo Source: Royal Holloway, University of London.

While anniversary events on the meadows and in local towns next year will be colourful and exciting, we want to share the expertise of our academics and the beauty of Runnymede and its memorials as widely as possible in a format that can be accessed in future years. A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) seemed an obvious choice to help us connect with people interested in Magna Carta wherever they live. Working with the University of London and Coursera, a group of Royal Holloway’s historians put together a six week introductory course to take learners through the historical development of Magna Carta and its meanings. The course will encourage students to consider both the material history of Magna Carta – from original manuscripts to print and museum artefacts – and the changing international history and reception of ideas inspired by the document. The course will be offered for the first time in January 2015 and is open to everyone free of charge. Visit https://www.coursera.org/course/magnacarta to find out more and to register for the course.

The course will feature Professor Nigel Saul, a member of the Magna Carta 800th Committee’s Education subcommittee, who will discuss the context of Magna Carta’s creation in 1215 and show how reissues of Magna Carta through the thirteenth century led to the establishment of its clauses on the English statute book and the creation of Parliament. Professor Justin Champion, President of the Historical Association,  will take students through the reinvention of Magna Carta between 1508 and 1776, tracing the process by which Magna Carta transitioned from being a thing to being an idea, and from being a document of authority to being an icon for protest. Dr. Graham Smith and I then will focus on Magna Carta and the wider world, looking at how Magna Carta has been claimed by many and conflicting parties over the past 200 years. Dr. Nicholas Allen from our Politics Department will explain Magna Carta’s role as a foundational document in other countries’ constitutions, and Dr. Alasdair Pinkerton and Professor Peter Adey will take students on a walk from the ABA’s Magna Carta Memorial to the John F. Kennedy Runnymede Memorial, to explore the reasons for the emergence of Runnymede as a landscape of commemoration. Filmed in mostly glorious weather at sites across Runnymede, the lectures will introduce students to the birthplace of liberty alongside the timeline of and reasons for Magna Carta’s importance.

Dr Graham Smith filmed at the Commonwealth Air Forces Memorial on Coopers Hill above Runnymede. Photo Source: Still from the MOOC ‘Magna Carta and its Legacy,’ University of London, filmed by iMotion.

The peace treaty drawn up on the meadows of Runnymede in June 1215 between King John and his barons has become one of the most globally recognised icons in human history. Whether in India, North America, China, or Europe, Magna Carta – the material object and the complex meanings associated with it – has significance for a set of powerful values pertinent to the twenty-first century and is still frequently cited in political debates around rights to privacy, property, and prosperity. Over the course of eight centuries, the meaning of Magna Carta has been refashioned and embellished by legal traditions, communities protesting against political injustice, individuals protecting their environments, and minorities seeking tolerance of their cultural values. We hope that this MOOC will further strengthen Magna Carta as a living historical tradition, evolving and adapting as different interests explore its value in new contexts and challenges.

 

The Library of Congress will celebrate the 800th anniversary of the first issue of Magna Carta with a 10-week exhibition “Magna Carta: Muse and Mentor,” opening November 6, 2014, and running through Monday, January 19, 2015. The Lincoln Cathedral Magna Carta, one of four remaining originals from 1215, will be on display along with other rare materials from the Library’s rich collections to tell the story of Magna Carta’s influence on the history of political liberty. 

Categories: Research & Litigation

New books!

Massachsuetts Trial Court Law Library - Thu, 10/09/2014 - 8:10am
If you are interested in automated clearing house transactions, two new books have arrived at the Essex Law Library in Salem. The first, Automated Clearing House Transactions: operations, compliance, and audit covers everything from an introduction to the world of ACH transactions, to how to conduct an audit, as well as sample polices. The other, ACH training manual, explains the "ACH network participants and how to navigate through the ACH rules". Both books are available to borrow with a Trial Court Law Library card.
Categories: Research & Litigation

An Interview with Tanya London, Stacks Services Lead Technician

In Custodia Legis - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 12:25pm

This week’s interview is with Tanya London, lead technician in the Stacks Services section of the Law Library’s Collection Services Division.  Tanya recently held an extended temporary position as a program specialist in the Law Library’s Office of Legislative and External Relations.

Describe your background.

I have a Bachelor of Arts degree in History/Political Science from Virginia Union University. I initially had aspirations of becoming an attorney.  Then during my last year at school, I took a research and writing class which led me to change my career goal.  I wanted to become a librarian.  Before becoming a lead library technician at the Law Library of Congress, I was a library/serial assistant at the law library of a law firm.

I attend the Ebenezer AME Church and am a member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority Inc., and the Library of Congress Blacks in Government Chapter, and the Library of Congress Professional Association as well as the Daniel A. P Murray association. I have been a keyworker of the Combined Federal Campaign on multiple occasions and have volunteered at the polls for the 2008 presidential election and at numerous non-profit organizations including the DC Central Kitchen, Christmas in April*USA and Food and Friends.  In addition, I continue to fight for those affected by diabetes as a volunteer, a marathon walker, and fundraiser.

How would you describe your job to other people?

I provide legal research material to Congress, the Supreme Court, other government agencies, staff and the public.  I help sort, arrange, shelve, and conduct physical inventory to secure material in the largest law library collection in the world. As a lead library technician I am responsible for providing quality customer service by double checking all “Not-on-shelf” (NOS) responses to patrons. For example, I searched for a book for a reading room patron after the initial response to his request was that the book was not on shelf.  After further research and checking various locations in the collection, I found and delivered the book to the patron.  He was very excited and gave me a big hug to show his appreciation.  That was a shock but also a proud moment that highlights the appreciation we get from patrons when we provide good customer service. 

Why did you want to work at the Law Library of Congress?

I was performing offsite research for my previous employer here at the Library of Congress when I realized this would be a great place to work.  I sought out the Law Library as a way to develop my research skills in a subject area I was interested in.  Also, I knew I would have access to the largest law collection in the world.  

What is the most interesting fact you’ve learned about the Law Library?

I’ve learned that the Law Library isn’t just about the books in the collection.  It’s about the valuable information contained in the pages of the books and who has access to the information. For example, I learned while on a short administrative detail in the Global Legal Resource Room as a library technician, that our foreign law specialists rely heavily on this collection because it contains the most up-to-date versions of the laws of their designated countries.

Also I’ve learned, while on a eight month administrative detail in the Office of Legislative and External Relations (Outreach) as a program specialist, how we promote our resources  and collection to various current and prospective clients as well as the general community.  I have organized tailored information sessions and collection tours for judges, lawyers, congressional staffers, foreign ambassadors and parliamentary dignitaries and law and medical school students.  I have also produced a successful program on the “Legend of Sleepy Hollow” from a legal perspective” with Professor Lewis Grossman of American University, Washington College of Law.

What’s something most of your co-workers do not know about you?

I am a philanthropist at heart.  I would like to start the Jasmine and Monique Stewart Foundation.  Named for my nieces and in admiration of my sister for the sacrifices she has made to give my nieces opportunities to participate in extracurricular activities.

Over the years my nieces have been fortunate to participate in several after school and summer programs.  The programs have been very costly and time consuming. Hence, the foundation would provide scholarships to families to cut down on the expenses associated with participating in extracurricular activities.

Categories: Research & Litigation

Election Law

Massachsuetts Trial Court Law Library - Wed, 10/08/2014 - 6:00am
Novemeber 4th will be Election Day. To vote in this year's election you must register by October 15th. Residents of Massachusetts can vote by absentee ballot if they:
  • will not be in town on Election Day
  • have a physical disability
  • cannot go to the polls due to religious beliefs
  • deployed military
Look here to find out more information on absentee ballots. The Federal Voting Assistance Program has resources for service members, their eligible family members, and overseas citizens.

More information on elections can be found on our Law About Elections webpage.
Categories: Research & Litigation

Approval of Medical Devices

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Tue, 10/07/2014 - 8:00pm
The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, Approval of Medical Devices.

This report describes the approval process for medical devices in the European Union and fifteen countries, and also indicates whether or not an expedited approval procedure is available. In many nations, particularly those influenced by the EU, part of the review process is conducted not by the government but by private, independent organizations called "notified bodies." In most of the countries in the survey, medical devices are categorized based on the risks associated with their use, and the approval process varies by category.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/medical-devices/index.php to read the entire report and to view the accompanying map of jurisdictions with an expedited process for approval of medical devices.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php.
Categories: Research & Litigation

New Research Report: Slaughter of Domestic Animals in Sweden

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Tue, 10/07/2014 - 8:00pm
The Law Library of Congress is proud to make available a new report, Sweden: Slaughter of Domestic Animals.

In Sweden the slaughter of domestic animals must be done following sedation of the animal. This requirement was first adopted in 1937 by the Act on the Slaughter of Domestic Animals and entered into force in 1938. The suffering of the animal was referenced as the main concern and remains so today. Critics of the current law argue that it infringes on the religious freedoms of Swedish citizens, most notably Jews and Muslims.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/slaughter-domestic-animals/sweden.php to read the entire report.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php.
Categories: Research & Litigation

New Research Report: National Funding of Road Infrastructure

Law Library of Congress: Research Reports - Tue, 10/07/2014 - 8:00pm
The Law Library of Congress is proud to present a new report, National Funding of Road Infrastructure.

This report examines the funding of roads and highways in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England and Wales, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, South Africa, and Sweden. It provides a description of the infrastructure in the jurisdiction, information on the ownership and responsibility of the roads, and taxes or other ways of collecting money to fund the nation's infrastructure. If applicable, a discussion of reforms or new initiatives is examined.

Visit http://www.loc.gov/law/help/infrastructure-funding/index.php to read the entire report.

This report is one of many prepared by the Law Library of Congress available at http://www.loc.gov/law/help/current-topics.php.
Categories: Research & Litigation

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